A glossary to help navigate the myriads of different philosophical terms out there. Most descriptions are just copy/paste from Wikipedia.
Vitalism is the doctrine that “living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things”.
- the relationship between cause and effect.
- the principle that everything has a cause.
Anthropocentrism (from Greek “human being“ and “center”) is the belief that human beings are the central or most significant species on the planet (in the sense that they are considered to have a moral status or value higher than that of other animals), or the assessment of reality through an exclusively human perspective.
Anthropomorphism, or personification, is attribution of human form or other characteristics to anything other than a human being. Examples include depicting deities with human form and ascribing human emotions or motives to forces of nature, such as hurricanes or earthquakes.
Eliminative materialisms (also called eliminativism) primary claim is that people’s common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.
Structuralism is a theoretical paradigm positing that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Alternatively, as summarized by philosopher Simon Blackburn, Structuralism is “the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture”.
The noumenon is a posited object or event that is known (if at all) without the use of the senses. The term is generally used in contrast with, or in relation to “phenomenon”, which refers to anything that appears to, or is an object of, the senses. Goes back to Kant.
Pantheism is the belief that the universe (or nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God. Pantheists thus do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god.
Panentheism (meaning “all-in-God”) is a belief system which posits that the divine – whether as a single God, number of gods, or other form of “cosmic animating force” – interpenetrates every part of the universe and extends, timelessly (and, presumably, spacelessly) beyond it. Unlike pantheism, which holds that the divine and the universe are identical, panentheism maintains a distinction between the divine and non-divine and the significance of both.
The Anthropocene is an informal geologic chronological term for the proposed epoch that began when human activities had a significant global impact on the Earth’s ecosystems.
Enactivism argues that cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. It claims that our environment is one which we selectively create through our capacities to interact with the world. “Organisms do not passively receive information from their environments, which they then translate into internal representations.
Nihilism (from the Latin nihil, nothing) is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the negation of one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value.
Misanthropy is the general hatred, distrust or disdain of the human species or human nature.
While ‘traditional extractivism’ deals with a well known way of getting hold of natural resources such as oil, gas or precious metals, being experienced for centuries in the whole region, the new form implies a social and political aspect in the entire process, which before was neither noticed nor discussed.
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is literature, painting, and film that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, share in common an acceptance of magic in the rational world.
By “correlation” we mean the idea according to which we only ever have access to the correlation between thinking and being, and never to either term considered apart from the other.
is a term coined by the political theorist John Dryzek
to describe an environmental orientation which perceives the earth as a resource whose use is determined primarily by human needs and interests and whose environmental problems are overcome through human innovation.